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In 2015, liquid brine water was identified by NASA’s Curiosity rover in the upper five centimetres of the Martian subsurface. In 2019, NASA identified the presence of water vapour directly above the surface of the Europa satellite. In 2020, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) detected water molecules in the Clavius Crater of the Moon’s southern hemisphere. In 2021, scientists found an enormous cloud of water vapour, floating 30 billion miles away in a quasar estimated to contain ~140 trillion times the amount of water on Earth.